Environmental Due Diligence

It’s critical to understand all potential environmental concerns with a property before making a financial investment.

Our environmental consulting services provide the bundled services clients need to identify and reduce environmental risk.

Phase I Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs)

ESAs are essential for any commercial real estate transaction. They establish the foundation for qualifying for landowner liability protection under CERCLA and many state environmental regulations. The goal of a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) is to help our clients better understand a property’s environmental risks in a clear, unambiguous manner. All BBG ESAs are conducted in accordance with industry standards established by ASTM, Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Freddie Mac, and Fannie Mae, as well as client specific scopes of work. In addition to a site visit, a Phase I ESA includes a regulatory database research and a review of historical aerials, fire insurance maps, topographic maps and city directories.  Additionally, Phase I ESAs may also include ASTM non-scope considerations such as asbestos-containing materials, lead-based paint, radon, lead in drinking water, microbial growth and emerging contaminants such as PFAS. BBG’s Phase I ESA reports meet the most current ASTM E1527 Standard and the USEPA All Appropriate Inquiry requirements,

Environmental Transaction Screens

Environmental Transaction Screens are utilized when a determination is made that a full Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is not warranted. Environmental Transaction Screens are limited in scope and used to identify potential environmental concerns associated with a property. Environmental Transaction Screens are conducted in accordance with industry standards established by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) in E1528.

SBA Records Search with Risk Assessments (RSRAs)

The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) utilizes RSRAs for property uses that do not match one of the NAICS codes of environmentally sensitive industries. The RSRA report is a limited assessment that evaluates the likelihood of contamination labeling the property “high risk” or “low risk.”  An RSRA includes a regulatory database research and a review of historical aerials, fire insurance maps, topographic maps and city directories

Government Records Review (GRR)

A Government Records Review can provide a quick and cost effective highlight of potential environmental issues through a regulatory database review.  These are desktop reviews that do not include a site visit but can be useful to determine if a site is high or low risk and if additional investigation may be warranted.

Phase II Environmental Site Assessment 

The purpose of a Phase II Subsurface Investigation is to confirm or refute the existence of contamination at a property, and to quantify the extent of the contamination. The scope of work for the investigation varies based on the nature of the concern and the needs of the client. Subsurface Investigation Reports include a discussion of the findings of investigation, conclusions, recommendations and, as necessary, remediation cost estimates. Through a vast network of contacts and on-staff geologists, BBG excels at efficiently executing and delivering Phase II Investigations throughout the country to meet deadlines and needs of the client.  In addition to Subsurface Investigations, BBG routinely conducts geophysical investigations, soil vapor investigations, and project oversight through successful completion.  

Third-Party Desktop Reviews

When required, the BBG Assessment team reviews reports prepared by others for scope of

compliance, quality of reporting and presentation of findings, and for all appropriate conclusions and recommendations. BBG conducts Desktop Reviews of Phase I and Phase II Environmental Assessments to provide the client with confirmation that the scope of work has been performed, the report is complete, and the conclusions and recommendations are appropriate and in compliance with industry standards and client protocol. Third-Party Desktop Reviews are typically presented in a brief summary letter.



Christopher Stang, PG

Senior Managing Director
Environmental Services

Mr. Christopher Stang is a Professional Geologist (PG) with more than 18 years of experience in the environmental and real estate consulting industry.  He has conducted Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs) for a wide range of local and national clients, including banks, agency lenders, investment banks, life companies, law firms and property owners.  The properties he has evaluated have included multifamily residential, retail, office, industrial and hospitality facilities.

Mr. Stang has conducted or reviewed hundreds of ESAs in accordance with ASTM E1527, the USEPA All Appropriate Inquiry rules, Fannie Mae Delegated Underwriting Standards, Freddie Mac guidelines and other client specific scopes of work.  Based on his experience and education, he meets the definition of an Environmental Professional as defined in §312.10 of 40 CFR 312.  His environmental background includes a detailed understanding of the risks associated with hazardous and regulated materials storage, use generation and disposal, above ground and underground storage tanks and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as well as the ASTM non-scope considerations of asbestos, lead-based paint, radon and microbial growth.    Mr. Stang has also managed and performed many remedial invitation (RI) site assessments at sites across the county and has also conducted site remediation activities including implementing free product removal, groundwater pump and treat, soil venting, bio-sparging technologies, in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) via sub-surface injection or soil blending, and air-sparge/soil vapor extraction.

Mr. Stang’s technical experience includes geologic and hydrogeologic aspects of subsurface investigations associated with contaminant migration at petrochemical, chlorinated solvent and hazardous waste sites.  Mr. Stang has performed multiple vapor intrusion assessments and his experience also includes recovery and monitor well installation; aquifer testing, including slug tests and pump tests, groundwater remediation and design; vapor, soil, water, industrial waste stream sampling and geophysical surveys with the government and private sectors.

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